This reoccurrence of flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, wildfires, and all natural events and their associated specific return periods that lead to disasters can be captured in event catalogues and stored in databases. With the help of these catalogues with statistical representations of event characteristics (i.e. for a cyclone, storm frequency, intensity, and radius to maximum wind) are parameterized, along with an associated probability distribution for each parameter. Armed with probabilistic or stochastic distribution of events scientists, engineers, researchers, decision and policy makers as well as government are able to model and plan for future events, rationalise decision making for preparedness, adaptation, mitigation as well as used them as a base for vulnerability assessment and disaster management.
If, when (a future date) and how (the intensity or magnitude), for example a hurricane, can impact a particular region depends on statistical representations of historical event characteristics (i.e. for a cyclone, storm wind speed, intensity, and radius to maximum wind, position: latitude and longitude, central pressure, translation velocity, etc. ) that are parameterized, along with an associated probability distribution for each parameter and associated climate models and general circulation models (GCMs), which are mathematical equations to characterize how energy and matter interact in different parts of the ocean, atmosphere, land. The result of such as complicated modelling techniques will yield future projections or distributions of, i.e. hurricane impact counts for various regions. National, regional and local resources, measures and assets will dictate how the modelled event will affect communities.