Changing climate patterns as a result of climate change leads to extreme fluctuating prevailing weather conditions. For example, increase in atmospheric moisture content as a result of anthropogenic (or human induced) warming leads to increased tropical cyclone rainfall rates. This in combination with another result of global warming that contributes to deglaciation of the continental ice volume and in turn rising sea levels. Increase cyclone activity together with sea level rise leads to greater storm surge flooding. This implies that an even larger percentage increase in the destructive potential per flood event resulting from storms. These are just some examples of extreme inundation that account for the billions of dollars in flood damage world-wide. The losses encompasses every aspect of a nation, region or community. From the economy, society, livelihoods, healthcare, etc.
The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) describes the fluctuations in the difference of atmospheric pressure at sea level between (1) Greenland and Iceland that generally experience lower air pressure than surrounding regions, called the sub-polar low, or sometimes the Icelandic Low, and (2) farther to the south, air pressure over the central North Atlantic Ocean is generally higher than surrounding regions. This atmospheric feature is called the subtropical high, or the Azores High. The increased difference in pressure between the two regions results in a stronger Atlantic jet stream and a northward shift of the hurricane and storm tracks. During a negative phase of NAO, eastern North America and the Caribbean experience lower air pressure which is associated with stronger cold-air outbreaks and an increase hurricane season.