If, when (a future date or frequency) and how (intensity or magnitude and/or duration) of an external shock, for example an epidemic (viral in origin, i.e. COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) caused by ebolaviruses, etc.) or non-epidemic disaster (natural, anthropic or technological, or a combination of, in origin, i.e. hurricane, flood, earthquake, etc.) strikes a particular region depends on statistical representations of historical event characteristics (probability or distribution), (climate model) as well as spatial and temporal factors. The most important factor associated with exposure are the numbers of people and assets (in terms of wealth) exposed to (spatial and temporal or time and place) the hazard, and their vulnerability to be damaged or loss of life. In the case of flooding, storm surge, tsunami’s and torrential downpours exposure means that human and animal population as well as accumulated wealth in close proximity of the coast, rivers (delta’s) or basins and low lying regions.